No, presently, adoption of a foreign born child does not guarantee the child’s eligibility to immigrate to the United States. If the orphan petition is approved, the child is considered to be an immediate relative of a U.S. citizen and the child can get an immigrant visa right away without being put on a visa waiting list. The child still must qualify for an immigrant visa just like any other foreign born person. For example, the child may be inadmissible if he or she has a contagious disease of public health significance.
When an orphan enters the U.S. with an immigrant visa, the orphan is considered to be a lawful permanent resident of the U.S., not a U.S. citizen. However, in some situations, a child will automatically become a U.S. citizen immediately upon admission into the U.S. as a lawful permanent resident.